Authors
Shapiro, MJ ; Gardner, R ; Jay, GD ; Lindquist, DG ; Salisbury, ML ; Salas, E

Across health care, teamwork is a critical element for effective patient care. Yet, numerous well-intentioned training programs may fail to achieve the desired outcomes in team performance. Hope for the improvement of teamwork in health care is provided by the success of the aviation and military communities in utilizing simulation-based training (SBT) for training and evaluating teams. This consensus paper 1) proposes a scientifically based methodology for SBT design and evaluation, 2) reviews existing team performance metrics in health care along with recommendations, and 3) focuses on leadership as a target for SBT because it has a high likelihood to improve many team processes and ultimately performance. It is hoped that this discussion will assist those in emergency medicine (EM) and the larger health care field in the design and delivery of SBT for training and evaluating teamwork.

Codebooks
SLR Criteria
Summary

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Summary

Metrics Assessing Specialty-specific Team Work.Metrics Assessing Generic Team Work.LOSA, OTAS, ANTS,CATS (see p.1092 for details)

Summary

1) proposes a scientifically based methodology for SBT design and evaluation, 2) reviews existing team performance metrics in health care along with recommendations, and 3) focuses on leadership as a target for SBT because it has a high likelihood to improve many team processes and ultimately performance

SLR Criteria
Summary

GoalThis consensus paper: 1) proposes a scientifically based methodology for SBT design and evaluation, 2) reviews existing team performance metrics in health care along with recommendations, and 3) focuses on leadership as a target for SBT team training, because it has a high likelihood to improve many team processes and ultimately performance.

Summary

Teamwork is dynamic and complex, requiring an evaluation strategy that is dynamic as well.More research is needed to develop high-performing metrics.

SLR Criteria
Summary

They describe 4 principles for developing simulation based training.Principle 1: Establish the Team-based Competencies to be Assessed and Trained—The Learning Outcomes.Principle 2: Provide Opportunities for Guided Teamwork Practice—Carefully Craft ScenariosPrinciple 3: Measure Team Performance—Diagnose Teamwork Strengths and Weaknesses.Principle 4: Develop Robust Debriefing Protocols— Link Feedback to Learning Outcomes.Concerning team performance metrics:Generic teamwork skills:CATS- Communication and team skills – developed for healthcare professionalsSpecific: Description of a stepwise app

SLR Criteria
Summary

The health care community is interested in improving teamwork. Yet, numerous well-intentioned programs may fail to achieve the desired outcomes in team performance. We address the need for teamwork-focused SBT in EM and detail a process for its development.