TODO: "Strategic CM Gaps" will be depreciated in favour of the Trial gaps.
Gap related CM functions

Lack of awareness of the psychological stress of spontaneous and trained volunteers following response operations

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The management of organised volunteers needs to provide for understanding and dealing with stress experienced by organised volunteers.
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The management of spontaneous volunteers needs to provide for understanding and dealing with stress experienced by spontaneous volunteers.
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The provided off-site health care and MHPSS services need to include psychological and psychosocial care for organised and spontaneous volunteers.
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Crisis medical, psychological and psychosocial services need to account for the need to assess and treat stress experienced by volunteers.
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Critical medical and MHPSS services to be restored during recovery operations include provision of comprehensive stress management, MHPSS and substance abuse services and programmes.

Lack of a “Common Operational Picture” environment to integrate data sources and calculation results from different models crucial for decision making process from the perspective of the incident commander

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A modelling and simulation capacity is needed to understand fully data flows, bottlenecks, and interoperability issues.
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Decision support systems are needed to integrate outputs of variety of models and deliver information of crucial importance to the incident commander.
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The integration of information from various sources is key for maintaining situational awareness.
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Adequate integration of data from various sources and models’ output is needed to provide decision support to incident commander.
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Data collection tools need to be integrated in a common data and information management architecture.
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Data from various sources is used to monitor comprehensively the affected area.

Limitations in the cross vulnerabilities (people, property, environment) assessment to optimize task prioritization and decision making

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Assessment of vulnerabilities needs to account for cross domain interdependencies and potential cascading effects
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The assessment of needs requires model- and data-based prediction of impact across domains
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Information on cross vulnerabilities and their actual and potential impact is needed to develop and sustain COP
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.The understanding of cross vulnerabilities and their impact affords better definition, prioritization and assignment of tasks and respective allocation of limited resources
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The assessment of cross vulnerabilities and their impact is integrated into decision support system(s)

Limits in the ability to ensure a common understanding of the information exchanged (terminology, symbology) by all crisis managers involved in the response operations

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Consultation and coordination across state agencies, local authorities, private entities, and volunteer organisations in develop crisis communications and information management documentation and procedures will promote adequate access to information (e.g. on a need to know basis) and commonality in terminology, symbology and, hence, understanding of a crisis situation.
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Requirements towards crisis communications capabilities, coordinated among stakeholders, need to seek commonality or harmonisation of terminology, symbols, representation of crisis management information, and data exchange formats.
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Established principles of information sharing need to promote standardized, common or harmonised terminology, symbology, formats and representation of crisis management information.
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Standards, common or harmonised terms, symbols, formats and representations need to be established in internal--horizontal and vertical--coordination.
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Standards, common or harmonised terms, symbols, formats and representations need to be followed in the establishment of crisis management rules and standard operating procedures.
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Commonality or harmonisation of training standards and modes will promote common understanding of the information exchanged in crisis operations.

Shortcomings in policy and procedures for communicating with the public during a large crisis

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A warning and alerting system with a messaging capability will allow to inform the population at the onset of a crisis and to continue to provide alerts and advice during a crisis management operation.
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Alerts and advice will serve to maintain public awareness on hazards, availability of respective services, and the means by which they can be accessed.
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Established communications policy, plans and procedures need to incorporate ways to continuously provide alerts and advice to various groups of the population and provide contact points for their information requests.
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The population has to be informed on the evolution of the hazard and its expected impact.
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Public information, guidance, instructions and advice need to be delivered continuously.

Lack of efficient coordination mechanism to overcome the limited capacity to deal with large numbers of severely burned casualties at member state level

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Search and rescue operations are used to find missing people, rescue victims of forest fires, provide first aid, and move them to safe areas.
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On-site first treatment service needs to be provided to severely burned people.
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On-site treatment of severely burned people can be provided by deployed field hospitals or by transporting them to regular hospitals.
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Additional national and international medical support for dealing with severely burned people is accepted and coordinated.

Shortcomings in the ability to exchange crisis-related information among agencies and organizations (also related to as interoperability)

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Crisis Communications and Information Management (CCIM) capabilities and procedures of stakeholders need to be understood so that interoperability issues are identified in a timely manner.
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Coordination across state agencies, local authorities, private entities, and volunteer organisations is needed in developing crisis communications and information management documentation and procedures.
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Consultation and coordination among stakeholders in the development of communications policy, plans and procedures will facilitate the exchange of crisis relevant information prior to and during a crisis.
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Early identification of information exchange requirements will guide the development of communications capabilities and interfaces and thus facilitate interoperability.
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Coordination among stakeholders in defining procedures for information management will facilitate the exchange of crisis related information.
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The provision of communications and information support by certain organisations (e.g. professional responders) to other stakeholders (e.g. local authorities, private actors, volunteers) will facilitate interoperability.

Insufficiency in the ability to incorporate accurate and verified information from multiple and non-traditional sources (e.g. crowdsourcing and social media) into response operations

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Established channels for communication with the public will allow to task people to provide needed information.
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Advanced crisis communications and information management networks create opportunities for application of relevant modes of crowd sourcing, as well as dissemination of the information on such opportunities.
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Monitoring of media coverage will provide facts and contextual information on the impact of the emergency, progress in disaster response made by the CM agencies, recommendations to the population, etc.
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Information from media and social networks, as well as directly communicated information by people (e.g. who are on the scene) needs to be verified to assure quality.

Lack of common procedures supporting international cooperation in aerial firefighting

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Common procedures are needed to request international support, allocate limited aerial firefighting assets, establish transportation routes, storage facilities, and a mechanism for international financial support.
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The use of foreign and international, public and private, aerial firefighting assets is facilitated by established procedures for management and provision of support.

Shortcomings in planning and managing large scale evacuation of population in urban areas

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A rigorous capabilities-oriented planning process, including likely scenarios, allows to identify gaps and options in meeting any requirement.
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For a less likely, yet plausible crisis management scenarios, identified by rigorous foresight, one needs to develop possible courses of action and estimate respective required resources.
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Evacuation and shelter, along with other core services, need to be provided within and outside the affected area.
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During recovery operations, additional resources may be mobilised to upgrade temporary sheltering.
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Large scale evacuation requires that critical transportation lines are opened and maintained, and their use is managed to meet priority requirements.
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Temporary deployable accommodation camps and other evacuation facilities need to be established and operated within and outside the affected area, with provision of core related services.